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however deeply rooted. But a few autobiographies,
taken verbatim from the boys themselves,
will do more to show the antecedents of the
Chichester's crew, and the extent of their
improvement, than pages of mere
generalisation:

W. H. Age, fifteen and a quarter. Born,
Bristol. Father, journeyman shoemaker. Living.
Ran away from home. No reason for it. Had
worked at a tailor's for six months before
running away. Two or three weeks coming
up to London. Cadging. Joined a shoeblack
society. Left it because they wanted
him to become a Roman Catholic. Entered
the Home. Eighteen months there.
Shoemaker at the Home. Father knows of his
being here.

G. C. N. Age, fifteen. Born, Shadwell.
Parents, dead. Father, doctor. Robbed his
father and ran from home. Went home again.
Ran away again, after frequently robbing his
father. A month on the streets. Then went to
Refuge. Two years in Refuge. Tailoring in
Refuge.

H. L. Age, fourteen and three-quarters.
Born, Chesham, Bucks. Parents, dead. Father,
butcher. Taken to Union at death of parents,
at six years old. Remained in Union six years.
Then taken out by an aunt, and lived with her
till she diedabout a year. Then brought by a
gentleman of Chesham to the Refuge. Nine
months there. Shoemaking.

F. G. Age, thirteen and a half. Born,
Dover. Parents, living. Father, navvy. In
jail at present for beating his wife. Has been
in ten times before. Lived eight years at home
at Dover. Then family moved to Bedford.
Remained there four or five years. Then when father
was sent to prison, a gentleman of Bedford sent
him to the Refuge. One month there.

W. H. P. Age, twelve and a half. Born,
London. Father, dead. Bricklayer. Ran
away from home soon after his father died.
Brought back, and went on the streets again as
often as brought back to his mother. About two
years off and on the streets. Then at mother's
application he was taken in the Refuge. One
year in Refuge. Always had a bellyful on the
streets; going in the mud for halfpence at
Hungerford; stealing fruit at Covent-garden;
sleeping in "ruins," &c.

W. H. Age, thirteen. Born, London.
Parents, living. Father, gentleman's servant.
Left home a year ago. Parents abandoned him.
Went out one day, and returned and found them
gone. Three months on the streets. Holding
horses, cleansing out cab-yards, &c. Slept in
omnibuses, &c. Sent to prison for running off
with a horse and trap, for seven days. Then
sent to the Refuge. Thirteen months there.
Tailoring.

W. P. Age, sixteen and a quarter. Born,
London. Parents, dead. Father, painter.
When father died went to a friend's in the
country. Lived there one year and a half. Then
was sent to a situation in London at a doctor's
shop. Four mouths there. Then taken away
by his sister. Then went to a coffee-shop.
Seven months there. Then his brother got
him into the Refuge, taking him out of the
coffee-shop. Three years in Refuge.
Woodchopper. Always sick there. Suffering from
his chest.

J. M. Age, fifteen and three-quarters. Born,
London. Parents, alive. Father, labourer.
Two brothers besides self. Left home nine
months ago, and went on streets because he had
nothing to do at home. On and off. Carrying
parcels and minding horses. Slept in the casual
wards. Then went to Home. Seven months in
home. Shoemaking.

P. K. Age, fourteen. Born, Norwood.
Parents, dead. Never heard what his father
was. Went on the streets at twelve years old,
because his brother used to make him read the
Bible. Two years on the streets. Stealing
and begging. Three months in prison for stealing
a purse. Always had plenty to eat on the
streets, from servants, &c. Went from the
streets to the Refuge. Fifteen months there.
Shoemaking.

J. O. Age, fifteen. Born, Canterbury.
Mother, alive. When last heard of, three years
ago, in London. Does not know whether he
has a father or not. Never heard. Left Canterbury
when a baby. Mother in London lived
with a young man who had deserted his wife
and family. She went into service three years
ago. Then went to live with grandmother
in London for six months, then a year at some
stables in Finsbury, but left after, being too
small. Went back to grandmother. Grandfather
shortly after died. Grandmother married
again. Her new husband, about two months
after marriage, being a drunken brute, kicked
her in the spine and killed her, after having
killed his two step-children by pouring boiling
water out of a kettle on them. After grandmother's
death, was sent from the George-yard
Shelter to the Home. Two years in Home.
Shoemaking. Reads and writes very little;
hardly write at all. Only about once a month
at school in the Home. Does not know what
baptism means. Does not suppose he has been
baptised.

G. B. Age sixteen. Has been baptised.
Born, Andover. Father, dead. Tailor. Has
not heard of mother for seven years. Mother
used to drink. Deserted her husband years
ago. Four years ago father and family came
up to London. Died one year ago. Three
months on streets after father died. Going the
round of casual wards. Then went to Home.
Ten months in Home. Can read and write.
Tailoring.

J. M. Age fifteen. Has been baptised. Born,
London. Parents, dead. Father, coalheaver.
Died five years ago. Mother and boy tramping
for four years in Kent. Hop-picking, harvesting,
and begging in summer. Workhouse in
winter. After mother died, worked in a capsule
manufactory. Left it with a bad foot. When
cured in workhouse, they gave him two shillings.
Bought box and brushes. Kept it for four days.

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