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profit per annum on each of the acres has been
fifteen pounds. Here are the sums:—The
profit of the first year was sixty pounds two
shillings and fourpence farthing; second year,
fifty-one pounds seventeen shillings and
sixpence; to Christmas, 1849, three-quarters of
a year, sixty-seven pounds two shillings and
one penny farthing; total, one hundred and
seventy-nine pounds one shilling and elevenpence

As at the Swinton and other pauper schools,
a variety of industrial arts are taught in the
Guiltcross Union house, and the fact that
sixty of the boys and girls who have been
trained in it are now earning their own living,
is some evidence of the success of the system
pursued there.

Of one of the cultivators of this " little place
in Norfolk " (not we believe an inmate of the
Union), an agreeable account was published
in a letter from Miss Martineau lately in the
Morning Chronicle. It shows to what good
account a knowledge of small farming may be
turned. That lady having two acres of land, at
Ambleside, in Westmoreland, which she wished
to cultivate, sent to Mr. Rackham to recommend
her a farm servant. The man arrived, and
his Guiltcross experience in cultivating small
"estates " proved of essential service. He has
managed to keep two cows and a pig, besides
himself and a wife, on these narrow confines;
for Miss Martineau calculates that the
produce in milk, butter, vegetables, &c., obtained
from his skill and economy for herself and
household, quite pays his wages. This is her
account of him:

"He is a man of extraordinary industry and
cleverness, as well as rigid honesty. His
ambition is roused; for he knows that the
success of the experiment mainly depends on
himself. He is living in comfort, and laying
by a little money, and he looks so happy that
it would truly grieve me to have to give up;
though I have no doubt that he would
immediately find work at good wages in the
neighbourhood. His wife and he had saved
enough to pay their journey hither out of
Norfolk. I gave him twelve shillings a-week
all the year round. His wife earns something
by occasionally helping in the house, by
assisting in my washing, and by taking in
washing when she can get it. I built them
an excellent cottage of the stone of the district,
for which they pay one shilling and sixpence
per week. They know that they could not get
such another oft the premises for five pounds
a year."

This is all very interesting and gratifying,
but there are two sides to every account.
Supposing the system of agricultural and
other industrial training were pursued in all
Unions in the country (and if it be a good
system, it ought to be so followed), then,
instead of boys and girls being turned out every
three years in sixties, there would be
accessions of farmers, tailors, carpenters, dairy-
maids, and domestic servants every year to
be reckoned by thousands. Supposing that
every fourteen of the agricultural section of
the community had been earning fifteen
pounds a-year profit per acre, we should then
have a large amount of produce brought into
the market in competition with that of the
independent labourer. When, again, the
multitude of boys had passed their probation,
themselves would be thrown in the labour-
market (as the sixty Guiltcross boys already
have been), so that their older and weaker
competitors would, in their turn, be obliged
to retire to the Workhouse, not only to their
own ruin, but to the exceeding mortification
of the entire body of parochial rate-payers.
The axiom, that when there is a glut in a
market any additional supply of the same
commodity is an evil, applies most
emphatically to labour. In this view, the adoption
of the industrial training system for paupers
and criminals would be an evil; and an evil
of the very description it is meant to cure
a pauperising evil.

The easy and natural remedy is a
combination of colonisation, with the industrial
training system. In all our colonies ordinary,
merely animal labour is eagerly coveted, and
skilled labour is at a high premium. There
a competition for, instead of against, all sorts
of labour is keenly active. Yet great as is
the demand, it is curious that no comprehensive
system for the supply of skilled labour
has yet been adopted. Except the excellent
farm school of the Philanthropic Society at
Red Hill, no attempt is made to teach
colonisation. The majority of even voluntary
colonists are persons utterly ignorant of colonial
wants. They have never learned to dig or to
delve. Many clever artists have emigrated
to Australia, where pictures are not wanted;
not a few emigrant ladies, of undoubted talents
in Berlin work and crochet, have always
trembled at the approach of a cow, and never
made so much as a pat of butter in their lives.
Still they succeed in the end; but only after
much misery and mortification, which would
have been saved them if they had been better
prepared for colonial exigencies. The same
thing happens with the humbler classes.
Boys, and even men, have been sent out to
Canada and the Southern Colonies (especially
from the Irish Unions), utterly unfitted for
their new sphere of life and labour.

If, therefore, the small beginnings at
Guiltcross be imitated in other Unions (and it is
much to be wished that they should be), they
will be made to grow into large results. But
these results must be applied not to clog
and glut the labour market at home; but to
supply the labour market abroad.

If to every Union were attached an
agricultural training school, upon a plan that
would offer legitimate inducements for the
pupils to emigrate when old enough and
skilled enough to obtain their own livelihood,
this country would, we are assured, at no
distant date be de-pauperised.