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in them. It is just as true, too, that there is
a vast deal of what wants getting rid of
ignorance, and vindictiveness. These
"encumbered" men were a wretched race!
They were the tools and victims of a false,
inhuman, impolitic system; which was two-
edgedit cut both them and their victims
it ruined them and their country. But we
see the remedy now. Emigration is removing
a huge pressure of population. Men of capital
and of science are beginning to see what may
be done here. There will soon be new means
of communication; new manufactures
improvements. Above all, and as a foundation
for all, English capitalists and English
agricultural science will take the place of the old
broken-down, proud, and incurable half-castes,
who filled the country with ruin and misery.
Wherever Englishmen have purchased, they
are satisfied with their bargainsand they
find the people delighted to work for them.
Instead of all those bugbears which have been
spread of their jealousy of Englishmen, the
people say, ' We like you Englishmen,
because we can rely on youand we like your
money.' True, they would naturally be
jealous of English labourersbut who wants
them here? who would bring them?
Labourers here are plentiful, cheap, and good.
I would not have a single Englishman
employed here, except as a farmer. Let us have
some good, substantial, intelligent farmers, as
models and examples; but let us employas
builders, carpenters, artisans, labourersnone
but Irish. That will spread universal

"But would you turn out the tenants?
Would not that exasperate them to revenge?"

"Why, there are not half so many tenants
yet as we shall want. We can accommodate
all that are capable of taking a farm of not
less than fifty acres; and none who wanted
less would I have. A farm that does not
require a couple of horses' labour is a bad

"But all the small tenants, who are so
wretched, what will you do with them?"

"Turn them into labourers at a shilling
a day. We can employ them all. Every
labourer shall, if you do not object, have his
acre of land, to employ his family and
himself on odd evenings and mornings; not at
ten pounds per acre, but at the same rate as
the farms are let at."

"Where will you locate them?" asked Sir
Thomas, considering; " I see no village."

"Do you see yonder pretty lake out in the
moorland, about a mile hence? That lake is a
mile and a half long. You see how the lands,
swelling and undulating and scored by little
glens, run down to the water. And what a
pleasant light scattered wood of birch trees
clothes this side of it! There, I propose to
lay out a village. It shall be a village of
English cottages; each with its acre-garden,
little pigstye, and hen-house over it. The
street shall run along the margin of the lake."

"Quite Arcadian," said Sir Thomas, smil-
ing; " but will you not soon have a pretty
swarm of squatters there?"

"Not one. A clause in every agreement
or lease against under-letting will stop that.
In fact, the tenants will find it their best
interest to please you; an upright,
man they soon appreciate. Only a
quarter of a mile below this lake, behind
that range of hills, lies a large village, on
the estate of Sir John Balthorne. Sir John
and his neighbour are cutting a canal from
the sea, only a mile distant; and very shortly,
boats, capable of sailing to Liverpool, will
enter, as into a harbour, and bring all sorts
of necessaries, at the lowest market prices,
into the very midst of the people; while they,
in turn, carry off our produce. Let us cut
our canal, and we can have a little fleet of
fishing-boats lying here, and merchant-vessels
besides. We must have also a fishing hamlet."

"Upon my word! " said Sir Thomas, laugh-
ing, " you build villages as rapidly and readily
as other people build castles in the air."

"I am talking of things that are actually
now doing in various places on this western
coast, Sir Thomas. It is no mere dream;
no Utopia, that I am contemplating; I am
only planning for the future on a basis of
things already in active operation. In fact,
Sir, you must take a trip up this side of the
country. You will see what lovely lakes and
rivers; what picturesque mountains; what
admirable bays and harbours this country
abounds with. In short, every human
inducement is presented on this estate for
active, intelligent Englishmen to settle;
instead of going all the way to Western
America, Canada, or to Australia."

"But where will you find estates for all?"
asked Sir Thomas.

"Estates! why, besides the encumbered
estatesand there are plenty of them yet
there are four millions of acres of waste land
in Ireland, an immense extent of which is
excellent. The more the success and satisfaction
of the English purchasers here are
known, the more English will settle. There
are many old English families of the nobility
who have estates in Ireland, who have done a
great deal already, and they will do more.
The Irish families will soon catch the spirit;
and imitate. Irish as well as English
capitalistsmen of active habits and enlightened
viewswill become estate owners, when they
see that it is both safe and profitable. A
new race, and new blood, will supersede the
old half-caste, wrong-headed, and "encumbered"
generation. This is the true and substantial
foundation of Ireland's renovation,
and at the work of advancing this renovation
we must all labour earnestly. I know nothing
that can be more delightful than the prosecution
of such labours, which, while they build
up new fortunes, extend the splendour and
influence of old fortunes."

"You are right," said Sir Thomas, thoughtfully;

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