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in which they lived; they held no intercourse
with the rest of the world, or even with their
neighbours, the other inhabitants of the
country; and they formed as many little
separate republics as there were valleys.
Each clan had, and even still has, its chief,
who generally fills, also, the functions of
judge and priest. In the morning and the
evening they have public prayers; but,
although, like their lords, they belong to
the reformed religion, they have no one
among them specially entrusted with the
cure of souls. When they marry their
daughters, they make great ceremony and
feasting, to which all comers are welcome.
On these occasions, too, they sometimes pay
a visit to the lord of the valley, that he may
share in their simple rejoicing; but, at other
times, they are shy of strangers, and few of
them wander far beyond their native place.
The agent, or the lord himself, usually visits
them once a-year; or, perhaps, more frequently
the patriarch of the tribe goes to the lord
and tells him of the number of his cattle,
and of their increase, of what must be
sold and what must be kept. Certain of
the peasants leave the depths of their valley
towards the end of summer, and drive
their flocks and herds into Wallachia, along
the banks of the mighty Danube. Here
are found immense forests; and here, in
spite of winter, the sheep may glean fresh
and plentiful pasturage. The owners of
the woods are paid, in return, a certain
sum yearly. In the Spring, merchants and
cattle-dealers come down from Constantinople,
who buy their sheep and goats;
and it is to this sale that the lords of
Transylvania look for the greatest part of their

Immediately after the shepherds have
effected a sale, they despatch a messenger to
their lord, who, in his turn, sends a trusty
servant to receive the money. There are no
bankers, no bills, no checks, no first and
second of exchange, no post-office orders;
the purchases are paid for in solid and very
dirty silver, and it is carried through floods,
rain, wind, and weather, to the lord, with
pastoral honesty and simplicity. All takes
place with a good faith and punctuality, and
an earnestness of purpose very touching to

Besides this source of revenue, no sooner
have the flocks and herds returned to the
valley, than the lord sends in waggons to
return laden with cheese, the produce of
the year. These cheeses are some of them
formed like loaves; and some, the most
delicate, are pressed into the skins of young
lambs, carefully prepared for the purpose
by some primitive art. The third, and
remaining portion, of a Transylvanian gentleman's
income is derived from wool, which
is as faithfully and punctually delivered
to him as his cheeses, or the cash for his

There is neither corn nor wine in these
valleys, and the dwellers in them live chiefly
on a kind of thin paste and a fermented
drink, in both of which the milk of sheep
forms a very important ingredient.
Sometimes they regale themselves with a lamb or
a kid; but this is a rare festival. They make
their own garments from the wool of their
flocks, which they fashion into coarse thick
cloths, mighty against snow, and rain, and sun,
and wind, but not pretty. Their caps, too, are
made of wool; and, with long, shaggy tufts
hanging to them, look like weird, uncouth
wigs. Their women and children are clothed
in the same way, and all live together in caves
cut in the mountain side, or formed by nature
in the solid rocks.

I paid some of these people a visit, and found,
in one of these cavern houses, an Englishman's
hat and umbrella. These things interested
me, because their possessors had a legend
that they had been received from a demon,
and I could not help fancying it more likely
that they had belonged to some luckless
wight, who might have wandered thither and
been lost. Into the hat they had forced a
cheese; but I fancied I detected a sort of
superstitious reverence for the umbrella, and
they evidently looked upon its mechanism
with great wonder and respect. They asked
eagerly for information upon the mysterious
subject, and, after I had explained it (which I
am now almost sorry I did), I fancy they looked
upon me as we, in England, looked upon people
who had a tendency for explaining things
in the middle agesas an unbeliever, a
student in dark arts, a magician, in league
with the Evil One. But I had an object to
answer, and I entered into negotiations for
getting the cheese out of the hat, and offered,
what Mr. Trapbois calls a " con-side-ra-tion,"
to be allowed to examine both hat and
umbrella nearer, to see if I could find any
mark, or initials, giving a clue to their
former owner. For a long time my efforts were
useless; the cheese in the hat was intended
for the lord, and they were afraid of offending
the umbrella by allowing me to take
any liberty with it; but a good-temper,
and a cheery way, gets on wonderfully with
simple folk, and at length they listened to
my wish, but refused my gift. I could
not, however, find anything to reward my

On returning to Vienna the mystery was
cleared up. It appears, that an English
traveller, making a tour in those parts on
foot, had been overtaken by a gaunt man in
a strange costume. The uncouth figure
addressed him in an unknown tongue; and
all presence of mind, for a moment, deserted
him. Without pausing to reflect if the greeting
were friendly or hostile, he thought to
conciliate his gigantic acquaintance (having
no money about him) by offering the only
things he could dispose of; so, taking off
his hat, and resigning his umbrella with it

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