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inner cabins the passengers had to grope their
way along a narrow dark passage between
the outside cabins; and inasmuch as not more
than every alternate one enjoyed the luxury
of a small round port-hole, the close heated
feel within them may be imagined. I looked
for the neat, roomy model cabin with its
many fittings, that had attracted so much
notice when I visited the ship in dock; but
my search was in vain. It had gone the way
of all models, or was perhaps doing duty on
board the next vessel on the berth, together
with the patent ventilators and the family

It was some time past twilight when I left
the ship's side, having taken a parting peep at
the emigrant Babel below; and, with the sound
of the casky voice still ringing in my ears,
complaining bitterly of some newly discovered
mine of grievances, I bade my boatmen pull
ashore. Early the following morning I
strolled down to the Town Pier, and reached
it in time to see the Jeremy Diddler steam-
tugged round the point of land below. My
immediate reflections were, that I very much
approved of emigration, and that it was very
natural and reasonable in large numbers of
our home-community, who have little or no
prospect of ever establishing themselves in
life on their own account, here, to go with a
good spade and as good a will, to the Diggings.
But, also, that the Jeremy Diddler, and the
subject of passenger accommodation in
general, would be none the worse for a little
more "ventilation."


THAT workmen in England may have some
clear knowledge of the ways and customs of a
large number of their brethren on the
Continent, I, a German workman, here intend to
put down for their use a part of my own
knowledge and experience.

The majority of trades in Germany are
formed into guilds, or companies. At the
head of each guild stands an officer chosen
by the government, whatever it may befor
you may find a government of any sort in
Germany, between an emperor and a senate
this officer being always a master, and a
member of the guild. His title differs in
almost every German state, but he is generally
called Trade-master, or Deputy. Associated
with him are two or three of the oldest
employers; or, in some cases, workmen in the
trade, under the titles of Eldermen, or
Masters' Representatives. These three or four
men govern the guild, and have under them,
for the proper transaction of business, a
secretary and a messenger. Such officers,
however, do not represent their trade in the
whole state or kingdom; but are chosen, in
every large town, to conduct the multifarious
business that may require attention within
its limits.

Although all these guilds are, in their
original constitution, formed on the same model,
they differ materially in their internal arrangements.
Much depends upon the ruling government
of the state in which they are situated;
for, while in despotic Prussia, what is there
called Freedom of Trade is declared for all,
in the "free" town of Hamburgh everything
is bound and locked up in small

In some parts of Germany there are "close
trades," which means to say that the number
of masters in each is definitely fixed. This is
so in Hamburgh. For instance, among the
goldsmiths, the number of new masters
annually to be elected is three, being about
sufficient to fill up the deficiencies occurring
from death and other causes. I have heard
of as many as five being elected in one year,
and I have also heard it asserted that this
was to be accounted for on the supposition
that the aldermen had been "smeared in the
hand;" that is to say, bribed.

There are other trades locked up in a
different way. There exist several of this
kind in Nuremberg, and thereabouts; as,
the awl and punch makers, lead-pencil
makers, hand-bell makers, gold and silver
wire-drawers, and others. They occupy , a
particular town, or district, and they say,
"Here we are. We possess these trades,
and we mean to keep them to ourselves.
We will teach no strangers our craft; we
will confine it among our relatives and townsmen;
and in order to prevent the knowledge
of it from spreading any farther, we will allow
our workmen to travel only within the limits
of our town or land;" and so they keep their
secrets close.

In other trades, the workmen are allowed
to engage themselves only to a privileged
employer. That is to say, they dare not
execute a private order, but can receive
employment from a master of the craft only.
In Prussia, and some few other lands, each
workman can work on his own account,
and can offer his goods for sale in the public
market unhindered, so long as they are the
production of his own hands alone; but
should he employ a journeyman, then he pays
a tax to Government of about ten shillings
annually, the tax increasing in proportion to
the number of men he may employ.

There are also "endowed" and "unendowed"
trades. An endowed guild is one the
members of which pay a certain small sum monthly
while in work, and thus form a fund for the
relief of the sick and the assistance of the
travelling members of the trade. There are
few trades of the unendowed kind, for the
workmen of such trades have to depend upon
the generosity of their companions in the craft
in the hour of need; and it is generally found
more economical to pay a regular sum than
to be called on at uncertain intervals for a
donation; moreover, the respectability of the
craft is better maintained.

While we talk of respectability, we may add

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